Jabon ( Anthocephalus cadamba) is one type of wood is growing very fast and can flourish in tropical forests with an altitude of 0000-1000 m above sea level
Currently a mainstay Jabon timber industry, including plywood, because Jabon has several advantages over other wood plants including sengon / albizia. From the test results that have been done, the benefits jabon plants can be described from several sides, including:
trunk diameter to grow around 10 cm / yr
Jabon production period is short - just 4-5 years
Trunked cylinder with a very good level of alignment
Does not require trimming because the branches will fall growth period ( self purning)
Taxonomy and nomenclature
• Family: Rubiaceae
• Synonyms: Anthocephalus cadamba auct., A.cadamba ( Roxb.) Miq., A. A. indicus Rich., A.morindaefolius Korth.
• Local Name: Kadam ( India, France and trade names) ; Kelampayan, Kawak, Jabon ( Indonesia) .
Distribution and Habitat
• Distribution of a natural at the start of India, Nepal and India, to Thailand and Indochina and eastern parts of the Malay Archipelago to Papua New Guinea. This plant has been introduced in Africa and Central America and able to adapt well.
• In Indonesia, these plants are on the island of Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sumbawa and Irian Jaya.
• It is a typical pioneer plants and common in secondary forest. The kind that requires light and is intolerant of cold weather. In its natural distribution, this plant grows well at altitude of 0000-1000 m above sea level with an average rainfall of more than 1, 500 mm / year, on clay soils, Podsolic brown, and moist alluvial generally found along the river that beraerasi good.
• However jabon can also grow in dry areas with least rainfall of 200 mm / year, and tolerant of stagnant water conditions are periodic.
• Always green. In the wild the tree can reach a height of 45 m with a diameter of more than 100 cm, while the free boundary of its branches reaching up to 25 m. At the age of 3 years to reach 17 m high with a diameter of 30 cm. Canopy shape like an umbrella with a branching system that is not circular with thick leaves with a length of 13-32 cm. Orange flowers are small, valvate meetings, round-shaped. Trunk straight cylindrical and not buttress. Wood is creamy white to reddish brown.
TREE Jabon, relatively unknown to farmers engaged in cultivation of crops in the area. In fact, the tree named latin antochepalus cadamba have high economic value.
Jabon tree logs, among others, could be used as raw material for plywood, veneer, wood parking, plywood boards, furniture. In fact, reputedly the wood produced better quality than sengon tree.
At least, Jabon could be an alternative for farmers to replace crops that sengon tumor rust disease.
To introduce the tree Jabon, PT. Knights MAP INDORAYA working with residents have been carrying out tree planting Jabon first in several District in Ciamis, Cilacap also other districts. The plan, broadleaf trees will be planted only on land covering 50 hectares, spread in the village of Ciherang, padaherang, and Banjarsari. Planting site is land owned by citizens, but on request will communities that we' ve jabon plants were planted about 120 hectares of land ranging from 100 000 trees in the farming communities assisted.
Planting Jabon is a program of community forest development in partnership with the office.
Community menaman on land owned by them, while PT. Knights MAP INDORAYA help seed and fertilizer. Jabon plant was chosen because rapid growth ( in about 5 years, can be harvested with trunk diameters over 30 cm and a height of up to 18 meters) .
Plants have a cylindrical rod, with a relatively good level of alignment and no need to trim branches, leaves shed because it is myself. Plants have a yellowish-white wood, smooth texture, and easy to peel. ' ' The quality of the trees tend to be good, rather than sengon tree. Within five years, farmers could reap profits estimated hundreds of millions.
We are optimistic, Jabon plant has good prospects ahead. Moreover, demand for wood in Indonesia is currently around 18 million m3 per year, while timber production is available each year ranges from 9 million m3.
Conditions in the field, some communities in the district of Ciamis, Cilacap, Wonosobo and its surroundings, which during the planting sengon, seems to be afraid to continue cultivating these plants. This was after, many of which attacked plants tumors sengon rust.
Young trees and adult disease ' ' flesh grow ' ' on the branch sengon it, almost certainly will be dry and dead. Meanwhile, so far there is no cure for the disease of plants.
' ' Jabon easy to grow on land with a maximum altitude of 1, 300 meters above sea level, and does not require special treatment, tumors resistant to rust disease.
growth is very fast compared with other hardwoods including when compared with sengon ( albizia) , Jabon pioneer plants classified as sengon. It can grow in clay, brown podzolic clay, or rocky soil. So far jabon free of pests and diseases, including rust tumor that is now being attacked sengon.
Traits and characteristics of stem jabon were: wood surface is smooth and perpendicular directions, like a creamy yellow meranti, stems easy to peel, dried, glued, timber free from eye defects and low susutnya.
PLANTING and MAINTENANCE
Jabon is an easy crop to grow and evolve does not require much special treatment in cultivation.
Jabon cultivation will benefit a very lucrative if done seriously and correctly. Estimated in 4-5 years, obtained from the sale of 625 trees aged 4-5 years as many as 800-1000 m 3 per ha. Jabon price forecast in the next 5 years Rp1, 2-million / m3. With a selling price of Rp1, 2-million per m3 and 800 m3 production, the turnover of planting jabon reach Rp960-million per ha. Currently, the price per m3 jabon 4-year-old reached Rp716.000; age 5 years, Rp837.000. If prices rise terkerek jabon no alias Rp716.000 per m3, the turnover of cultivation jabon ' only' Rp572.800.000.
Always green. In the wild the tree can reach a height of 45 m with a diameter of more than 100 cm, while the free boundary of its branches reaching up to 25 m. At the age of 3 years to reach 17 m high with a diameter of 30 cm. Canopy shape like an umbrella with a branching system that is not circular with thick leaves with a length of 13-32 cm. Orange flowers are small, valvate meetings, round-shaped. Trunk straight cylindrical and not buttress. Wood is creamy white to reddish brown.
Jabon plant to plant like gold, because the demand for wood will continue to escalate, because the government prohibits the use of the resulting timber of natural forests, resulting in many industries closed due to shortage of wood supply, so in the future, jabon timber prices will increase continues.